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Bouquet receiving war captives

Bouquet receiving war captives


Henry Louis Bouquet was born in Switzerland in 1719.

Joining the military at the age of 17, he served the Dutch Republic and the Kingdom of Sardinia before fetching-up on the shores of North America, where he achieved the rank of Colonel during the Seven Years War (1756-1763).

This conflict could quite rightly be considered the true “World War I”, with belligerents drawn from many nations, and three continents.  Most American schoolchildren are taught about this war from a strictly local perspective, and usually refer to it as the “French and Indian War”.  It would be more accurate to see the “French and Indian War” as the North American theatre of a war between European empires.

What concerns those of us with Melungeon ancestry is the “hit and run” guerrilla warfare that was being waged by various Native American tribes and nations at that time.  Indian hostilities were in response to British fort-building, as well as the growing deluge of settlers encroaching upon Native American lands.  Those European settlers too poor to afford land in the east were the ones most likely to risk the dangers of the frontier, where many attempted to “squat” on Indian lands.

Some would pay the ultimate price for their desperate gamble, perishing during attacks and raids which ranged from Pennsylvania to the Carolinas.

What is less well-known, is the sheer numbers of European soldiers, traders, and settlers captured alive by these tribes, who carried them back to the Indian country west of the Alleghenies.

After the British victory of 1763 in the “French and Indian War”, many tribes of the Ohio country (who had been allies of the French), saw the writing on the wall. With their French allies now out of the picture, the Native Americans would need to fight in order to forestall Anglo colonial advances into tribal lands – the only other option was to flee en masse westwards.  Further angered by their disdainful treatment at the hands of British officers such as Jeffrey Amherst, native leaders such as Pontiac of the Ottawa, and Guyasuta of the Seneca/Mingo gathered a confederacy to oppose Anglo colonial expansion.

The indigenous insurgency spread rapidly, and at least eight forts were taken, with another two at Detroit and the modern site of Pittsburg besieged.

Most modern historians consider this conflict (often known as Pontiac’s War) to have ended in a stalemate, but not before new standards in wartime brutality had been reached.  Thousand of settlers fled their homes from Pennsylvania to Virginia.  Innocent indigenous American families who had lived peacefully side-by-side with Europeans in Pennsylvania for years, far from events in the Upper Country, were massacred by ignorant American gangs – in cold blood.

Jeffrey Amherst and Colonel Bouquet shall live forever in infamy for their ruthless introduction of biological warfare into armed conflict – Amherst wrote to Colonel Bouquet on about 29 June 1763 at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, while Bouquet was preparing to lead an expedition to relieve Fort Pitt:

“Could it not be contrived to send the smallpox among the disaffected tribes of Indians? We must on this occasion use every stratagem in our power to reduce them.”

Underlings such as Simeon Ecuyer were already passing infected handkerchiefs to Delaware (Lenape) representatives during peace negotiations.  Over the next decade, anywhere between 400,000 and 1,500,000 Native Americans would succumb to the disease…

In the end, a treaty was agreed, with Col. Bouquet demanding the return of all British subjects (including actual British, as well as American colonials) who had been captured by Pontiac’s confederacy during the years of conflict.

This was easier said than done – many of the captives, after eight or even ten years, had by that time been assimilated into the various tribes.

Many were married, with bi-ethnic families.  Many no longer spoke English.  The pleas of the indigenous peoples went unheeded, and scores of families were torn apart.

Where would such people have gone, as people now caught culturally between two worlds?

Did some choose the mountains of Appalachia?  The time-frame matches very neatly indeed the earliest outsider settlement of hill and holler country.

Many of these names appear in Melungeon family trees, and many people of Southern Appalachia show clear genetic connections with living descendants of the Shawnee, Lenape, and others.

Below, I have attempted to compile a simple alphabetical muster roll of the captives “returned” to Colonel Bouquet, from various American and British sources.

I hope it will be of some interest and use to BWWW readers and listeners.

There was some work involved in preparing this list in a clear, easily readable fashion, so please include a mention of BWWW when sharing!

Note we have left name spellings as recorded at the time.

Tribes involved in conflict:


Captives retrieved by Colonel Bouquet in 1764/1765

Anna Catharina
Babson, Mordicai
Bacon, Catherine
Baskin, Peggy
Beaty, James
Bell, James
Betty Black Eyes
Bird, Margaret
Bird, Molly
Bittikanety (Biddy Kennedy?)
Blankenship, Stephen
Bonnet, Henry
Boyd, Sarah
Boyd, Thomas
Bridget’s Son
Bryan, Rebeca
Burd, John
Butler, James (or Jemmy Buttler)

Campbell, James
Campbell, Mary
Carpenter, Jerry
Carpenter, Solomon
Cartmill, Molly
Cartmill, Peggy
Castle, Mary
Clandinnon, Jean [Clendenin]
Clark, Andw
Clausser, Betty
Clausser, Magdalen
Clausser, Mary
Clem, Pelty
Clem, Ludovich
Cobble, Micheal
Cochran, John
Colley, Peggy
Collins, Thomas
Coon, Elizabeth & two children [Kühn]
Counsman, Elizabeth
Craven, Mary
Crooked Legs
Crow, Jane
Crow, Polly
Cuningham, Margaret

David Bighead
Davis, Willm
Davison, Agnus
Davison, Molly
Davison, Nancy
Devine, Morice
Diver, Hans
Diver, John
Donohoo, John (or John Donehoo) [Donohue]
Dorothy’s son

Ewins, John

Fincher, Rachell
Finley, Ann
Fishback, Margaret [Fischbach]
Fishback, Susan (or Susannah Fishback)
Fisher, John
Flat Nose
Flaugherty, Esther
Forsyth, John
Franse. Elizabeth
Freeling, John [Frieling]
Freeling, Peggy
Fulkison, Elizabeth

Gibson, Sarah
Gilmore, Elizabeth
Gilmore, Eiizabeth, Jr.
Gilmore, Jane
Gilmore, John
Gore, Rose
Greenwood, Mary

Haig, John
Hamilton, Archd
Hamilton, Mary
Hamilton, Miriam
Hannel, Mary
Harmantrout, Charles (or Hormontrout) [Harmantraudt]
Harmantrout, Christopher (or Hormontrout) [Harmantraudt]
Harper, Eve
Harper, Thomas
Harris, James
Heat, Catherine
Henry, Elizabeth
Hormontrout (see Harmantrout)
House, Christina (or Christiana House) [Haus]
Huntsman (see Huntzman)
Huntzman, Adam
Huntzman, Barbara (or Barbara Huntsman)
Huntzman, John (or John Huntsman)
Hutchinson, Florence
Hutchison, David
Hyerd, Leonard

Ice, Catherine
Ice, Christian
Ice. Elizabeth
Ice, Eve
Ice, John
Ice, Lewis
Ice. Thomas
Ice, William
Innis, Francis
Innis, Jenny

James (or Jemmy)
Jean or Ketakatwitche
Johnson, David
Joseph or Pechyloothamo

Kincade, Eleonard & two children
Knox, Jane
Knox, Mary
Knox, Robert
Knox, Susan A
Knox, Susan, Jr.

Lansisco, Mary & child (or Mary Lanssisco & child)
Leake, Hans
Leake. William
Lengenfield, Mary Cath.
Le Roy, John Jacob
Linenger, Margareta
Linenger, Rachel
Lingerfield, Catherine (or Lengenfield)
Lowry, Jane
Lowry, Mary
Lowry, Susan

McCord, Mary
Mcllroy, Elizabeth & child
Mcllroy, Mary
McQueen, Jane
Magdalen, or Pagothow
Mansel, Dorothy
Mansel, Margarite
Martin, James
Martin, Martha
Martin, William
Mekethiva, sister to Jacob
Metch, Molly (or Mitch)
Miller, Beverly
Miller, Margaret
Mitch (see Metch)
Mouse, Elizabeth
Myers, Frederick

Nalupua (sister to Molly Bird)

Palmer, John
Peggy (a “mulatto”)
Petro, Nicholas
Petro, Phillip
Petterson, Micheal
Polly (not her real name)
Pouter (or Wynima)
Price, Hannah
Price, James
Price, Sarah
Punnel, Henry
Punnel, Peggy

Red Jacket, Joseph
Rennox, Geor.
Reyneck, Peggy
Rhoads, Daniel
Rhoads, Micheal [Rhodes]
Riddle, John
Rigar, Barbara
Rigar, Dorothy
Ross, Taverner

Schlyer, Magdalen
Sea, John
Sea, Mary
Sea, Peggy
Sea, Sally
See, Catherine
See, George
See, Mary
See, Micheal
Sheaver, Ebenezer
Sheaver, John
Silkspiner, Joseph
Sims, Andrew
Sivers, Catherine
Sivers, Elizabeth
Sivers, Margarite
Slover, Elizabeth
Slover, Elizabeth, Jr.
Smeltzer, Hans Adam
Smeltzer, Jacob
Smith, Elizabeth
Smith, Hannah, & child
Snodgrass, Elizabeth
Sore Mouth
Sourbach, Hannah Maria
Sour Plumbs
Stettler, Alice
Stewart, Mary
Stintson, Elizabeth
Stroudman, Catherine (or Kitty Stroudman)
Stroudman, Uly
Studebaker, Joseph

Tamer (a mulatto)
Tanner, Christopher
Tosher, Elizabeth

Villa, Mary

Wallace, Samuel
Walter, John
Walters, Ephraim
Wampler, Christina
Westbrook, Catherine (or Kitty Westbrook)
Wheat, Thomas
Wig, Tommy
Wilkins, Elizabeth
Wilkins, Mary
Williams, Catherine
Williams, David
Williams, Jeany
Williams, Mary
Wiseman, John
Wood, Experience

Yoakim, Elizabeth [Joachim]
Yokeham, George
Yokeham, Margaret
Yokim, Sally
Young, Betty
Young, William W

girl with a Sore Knee

Supplementary “List H”, captives not confirmed returned to Bouquet

Bard, Margaret & five children
Barnett, Sarrah & one child
Barnett, Vanny & five children
Bingiman, Lezy [Benjamin]
Boyles, Saley & brother
Burke, Mary & two children
Cabe, Thomas
Carpenter, Soloman
Carpmill, Margrett [Cartmill?]
Cincade, Aley & three children [Kincaid]
Cotter, John
Cowday, Daniel
Cristopher, Moly
Days, Willm
Densey, Hannah
Dutch Garrah & three children
Dutch Girl
Dutch John
Freelands, John & 3 children & wife
Folkison, Ann [Fulkerson]
Fulerton, Nely
Good, Jacob
Gould, Molly
Guthrey, John
Huff, Samuel
Jamison, Betsey
Macrakin, Jean & her sister
Martin, John
Medley, Betsey
Medley, Wm
Miller, Nansey
Moore, Mary
Moore, Molly
Ormand, Abraham
Puzy, Robert
Potts, John
Pringer, Mary & two Children
Ramsey, Joseph
Ranock, Nansey her sister & four brothers
Robertson, Benjamin (his son)
Robertson, Betsey
Snodgrass, Betsey
Sovereign, Gower & four children
Stewart, James
Voss, Susanna

Also returned to Col. Bouquet – Thomas Smallman, Indian trader out of Pennsylvania

© B. Halpin, June 2023


#beforewewerewhite #warcaptives #pontiac

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